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Tracking timber supply chains to improve transparency from forests to consumers

Forests: A renewable resource in need of better management

Trees play a critical role to the functioning of life: maintaining ecosystems, regulating carbon dioxide, and providing shelter and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people around the world. The ultimate renewable resource, wood is strong, durable, and constantly replenished by nature. Whether used in construction, for furniture, as paper or burned for energy, wood is an essential part of daily life.

The potential of trees to provide this full range of services for humans and ecosystems relies on timber being harvested in a well-managed and sustainable fashion. Unfortunately, in most tropical and many temperate countries around the world, over 50% of timber is harvested illegally and in some cases nearly all logging is illegal – in contravention of laws meant to maintain the complex balance of nature and preserve resources for future forest product needs.

Widespread illegal logging destroys the functioning of these forests, producing short-term profits for local timber barons and their international trading partners, and flooding markets with artificially cheap wood products.

Scale and financing of the global timber industry

The FAO estimates that 1.837 billion m3 of logs meant for commercial production were cut around the world in 2014. Around 7% of this total, 134 million m3, were exported in log form. Sawn lumber represented a further 133 million m3 of exports, and plywood, veneer, and other panels totaled 83 million m3.

The combined value of the global forest products trade reached US $255 billion in 2014. That same year, US $140 billion of furniture was traded internationally. INTERPOL recently estimated that illegal logging generates at a minimum US $11 billion annually in criminal proceeds. As noted in a recent United Nations Environment Programme report, “much of the laundering of illegal timber is only possible due to large flows of funding from investors based in Asia, Europe, and the U.S., including investments through pension funds.”

China: The world’s largest importer of illegal timber

China has grown rapidly to become the world’s largest importer of wood products, followed by the United States (U.S.), the European Union (EU), and Japan. The U.S., EU, and Australia have passed laws in recent years to prohibit the importation of illegally sourced and traded wood products. Meanwhile, China’s enormous demand and lack of comparable legislation makes it the world’s largest importer of illegal timber. China’s role as a processor and exporter of finished products has recently been eclipsed by the strength of its domestic consumer market: less than a third of all timber and wood products produced in China are exported.

A closer look at products in the timber sector

  1. Industrial roundwood: Logs used for any purpose other than energy. Divided into coniferous (softwoods) and deciduous (hardwoods). The world’s top five importers of roundwood are: China, Austria, Germany, Sweden, and India.

  2. Sawnwood: Planks, beams, boards, etc. that are greater than 5 mm thick. Sawnwood is generally used directly in construction, or for the manufacturing of furniture, flooring, doors, window frames, and other finished products. The world’s largest importers of sawnwood are, in order: China, United States, Japan, United Kingdom, and Egypt.

  3. Wood-based panels: Plywood (including blockboard) and veneer; particleboard (including Oriented Strand Board (OSB)), and fiberboard (including Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)). Panels are similarly used directly in construction for walls, underlayment for flooring, as concrete molding, or used in the manufacture of furniture or other finished products. The world’s largest exporters of wood-based panels are: China, Canada, Malaysia, Germany, and Thailand.

  4. Pulp and Paper: In 2014, global producers made 407 million tons of wood and fiber pulp and recovered paper, resulting in 400 million tons of paper and paperboard. China and the United States were the largest producers and consumers of paper and paperboard, and the U.S. and northern European countries were both the largest exporters and the largest importers of paper and paperboard.

In addition, there are two categories of wood products of particular importance to the global timber trade:

  1. Wood furniture: Global furniture production reached US $480 billion in 2014, including $140 billion of exports. Furniture can be comprised either partially or entirely of wood, often with multiple species from around the world. A bed made in northern China, for instance, could be made with pine from Sweden, ash from the Russian Far East with a high risk of illegality, and MDF made from scrap wood by a producer in southern China. The large volume and value of the global furniture trade means that even a relatively small amount of illegal timber in a single product can have a strong negative impact in timber producing countries.

  2. Precious woods: Precious woods include rosewoods, ebonies, and other species characterized as having particularly dense and colorful heartwood, rarity in forests, and extremely high value on global markets. Traditionally valued primarily by musical instruments makers, demand has skyrocketed over the past decade due to their popularity in construction of antique-style furniture for China’s newly wealthy. These rare species take decades or even centuries to grow to maturity. Global targeting of these species over the past decades has driven local populations to near-extinction across the tropics, from the Mekong to Madagascar, from West Africa to Central America.

Impacts and Results

  • On October 7th, 2015 Lumber Liquidators, the largest flooring retailer in the U.S., pleaded guilty to violations of the U.S. Lacey Act for smuggling timber illegally sourced in the Russian Far East, and agreed to pay more than $13 million in fines and penalties – the largest penalty ever levied for illegal timber imports under the Lacey Act

  • In 2012, Gibson Guitars signed a Criminal Enforcement Agreement to settle a prosecution under the US Lacey Act for illegal import of ebony wood for guitar fretboards. EIA evidence gathered in Madagascar showed that Gibson’s local supplier had no legal stocks of ebony, and harvesting of the species had been banned since 2006.

Recent Blog Posts

While the coronavirus pandemic rages on, ravaging Zambia’s economy and crippling its citizens' lives, new findings by the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) show that illegal exploitation and trade in mukula (Pterocarpus tinctorius) persists unabated, benefitting a small number of well-connected and wealthy individuals. A probing undercover investigation into illegal mukula logging and trade sheds light on the apparent theft of more than 10,000 trees and unveils information connecting the Zambia Agency For Persons With Disabilities (ZAPD), the Ministry of Community and Social Services, the Ministry of Tourism and Arts, and the office of the vice president. Nearly two years after EIA’s exposé on the institutional looting of Zambian forests, it appears that the more things have changed with the pandemic, when it comes to mukula, the more they’ve stayed the same.
Seizing the Moment: How Ghana Can End the Destruction of the Illegal Rosewood Trade Now
As exports and imports worldwide are estimated to be at their lowest levels in four years due to the impact of COVID-19, Ghana, a key epicenter of the rosewood trade in West Africa, is no exception to this trend.

Recent Reports

How U.S. Imports of Agricultural Commodities Contribute to Deforestation and Why it Matters
A significant proportion of agricultural commodities produced on illegally deforested land enter global supply chains, exposing major markets such as the U.S. to environmental and human rights abuses, corruption, and organized crime through imports of raw materials and related manufactured goods, while undercutting companies trying to source legally and responsibly.
The Lie Behind the Ply
In an unprecedented investigation that connects threatened forests of Solomon Islands, China’s timber manufacturing hubs, and European importers, our new report The Lie Behind the Ply reveals how European consumers of tropical plywood have been the unwitting drivers of forest degradation. Our findings show that European companies appear to have imported thousands of tons of tropical-faced plywood, at high risk of containing illegal wood and in apparent violation of European law.

Recent Press Releases

Empresa norteamericana se declara culpable de importar madera ilegal del Perú
Este mes, un importador de madera de los Estados Unidos, Global Plywood and Lumber Trading LLC, se declaró culpable de importar madera ilegal del Perú en violación de la Ley Lacey de los Estados Unidos, que prohíbe el comercio de productos madereros ilegales en dicho país. Una investigación de seis años llevada a cabo por las autoridades del gobierno norteamericano Homeland Security Investigations, Customs and Border Protection y el Departamento de Justicia, demostró que al menos el 92% de la madera de Global Plywood en este envío había sido talada ilegalmente en la selva amazónica.
The Lie Behind the Ply
European Consumers of Tropical Plywood have been the Unwitting Drivers of Threatened Forest Degradation

Recent Videos

Mukula Cartel
In Zambia the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) found that a handful of very high profile figures have apparently orchestrated and facilitated massive trafficking operations for years that are driving mukula rosewood trees to the edge of commercial extinction, devastating vulnerable forests and threatening communities’ livelihoods